Compounds: One word, two words, or hyphenated?

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Prefixes vs. Compound Words

Prefixes

Usually can’t stand alone as words, with a few exceptions.
Examples: anti-, dis-, pro-, re-.

When they are in the dictionary, they are usually one word: prehistory

CMS says if not in MW11 dictionary, make it one word. preclean
AP says if not in WNW dictionary, hyphenate it. pre-clean

This post discusses compound words only. For more about prefixes, see separate post: Prefixes: One Word or Hyphenated?

Compound words

Both words can stand alone as words. They can be one word, two+ words, or hyphenated.
Examples: dollhouse, book club, half-truth.

Both CMS and AP say if it’s not in the dictionary, make it two words:

an open book

But hyphenate if you’re using it as an adjective before a noun:

an open-book test, the nice-looking shoes, the low-quality carpet.

If it’s after a noun, or is a noun itself, it’s two words:

I work full time.

The shoes, low quality but nice looking, are my favorite.

I am an open book. (noun)

If it’s an adjective after a be verb, CMS says leave it open, but AP says to hyphenate:

The test was open book. (CMS)

The test was open-book (AP)

With a hyphenated compound:

high-end-style bags = high-end + -style

game show–style format = game show + -style (CMS uses an en dash, AP uses a hyphen)

You will also hear these terms, but I’ll use “one word” and “two words” for clarity to a broader audience:

closed compound = one word: dollhouse
open compound = two words: book club
hyphenated compound = hyphenated: half-truth

Compound terms: one word, two words, or hyphenated?

1. Check MW11 dictionary (for Chicago style, 7.85) or WNW dictionary (for AP style, under hyphen).

2. If it’s not there, it’s either two words or hyphenated. (7.85)

3. Does it include an -ly adverb? If yes, it’s two words. (CMS 7.85 p. 377, AP under hyphen)

poorly trained employees.
They were poorly trained.

4.
For CMS, does it include more, most, less, least, or very? If yes, it’s two words, unless it causes ambiguity. (7.85, p. 377)

For AP, does it include very? If yes, it’s two words. (The other terms are not mentioned.) (AP under hyphen)

the more popular option
the most popular option
the less expensive item,
the least expensive item
the very happy child

Examples of ambiguity.

We have more experienced employees than any other company. (More modifies experienced employees, meaning “a higher number of experienced employees.” Might be better to rewrite the sentence to avoid misreading.)
The more-experienced employees will be promoted. (More-experienced modifies employees, meaning “the employees with more experience.”)

5. Is it a proper name? If yes, it’s two words. (5.91) (AP does not weigh in on this topic, but would likely agree.)

a Christmas Day miracle
her Second City training

6.
Are you using it as an adjective before a noun? Then use a hyphen.

For CMS, are you using it as an adjective (or adverb) after a noun? Or as a noun itself? Then keep it two words. (CMS 5.81, 5.99, 7.85)

For AP, same rules EXCEPT is it an adjective after a be verb? Then hyphenate it. (AP under hyphen)
(be verbs = is am are was were be being been)

the well-traveled student.
The student was well traveled. (CMS) The student was well-traveled. (AP)

a high-level skill, a higher-level skill
My skills were at a high level. My skills were at a higher level. (noun)
My skills are high level. (CMS) My skills are high-level. (AP)

a worse-smelling flower, the worst-smelling flower
That flower is worse smelling (CMS) That flower is worse-smelling. (AP)
That flower is the worst smelling (noun)

little-known facts
The facts were little known. (CMS) The facts were little-known. (AP)

a much-publicized book
The book, though much publicized, did not sell.
The book was much publicized. (CMS) The book was much-publicized. (AP)

a part-time job
He worked part time. (adverb)
The job was part time for now. (CMS) The job was part-time for now. (AP)

a glassy-eyed stare.
He was glassy eyed. (CMS) He was glassy-eyed. (AP)

low-hanging branches
The branches, low hanging and unkempt, were in my way.
The branches are low hanging. (CMS) The branches are low-hanging. (AP)

high-quality shoes
The shoes were of a high quality. (noun)
The shoes, high quality and expensive, fell apart quickly.
The shoes were high quality. (CMS) The shoes were high-quality. (AP)

pet-friendly park
The park, clean and pet friendly, added quality to the neighborhood.
The park was pet friendly. (CMS) The park was pet-friendly. (AP)

tree-climbing gear
Tree climbing is my hobby. I went tree climbing. (noun)

burned-out workers
The workers, angry and burned out, were unproductive.
The workers were burned out. (CMS) The workers were burned-out. (AP)

over-the-counter medicine
bought the medicine over the counter, it was available over the counter

out-of-style dresses
the dresses are going out of style.
The dresses will be out of style. (CMS) The dresses will be out-of-style. (AP)

game-playing friends
board-game-playing friends
It was a long night of game playing. (noun)

cooking-utensil drawer
The drawer is for cooking utensils. (noun)

7. With some terms, there is some gray area, especially when the two-word term is commonly used and usually a noun, such as high school. Does a hyphen aid readability? If yes, use a hyphen. If not, you may decide to keep it two words. Editors may debate some of these examples and approach them differently. Chicago says it is “never incorrect” to hyphenate them, though. (7.81)

high school sports; high school teacher (no chance of misreading)

open enrollment period (no chance of misreading)

open house night (no chance of misreading)

barbed wire fence (no chance of misreading)

a first-name basis (more clear with a hyphen)

first-person narrative (more clear with a hyphen, and Chicago almost always hyphenates it too.)

small-business owner (without the hyphen, could be read as “business owner who is small.”)

blue-ribbon winner (without the hyphen, could be read as “ribbon winner who is blue.” Also, it’s listed in MW11 and WNW, so there’s no debate.)

multiple-choice test (The word multiple-choice, adj., is listed in MW11 and WNW, so there’s no debate.)

chemistry class skills (This example would likely be treated differently by different editors. I would vote for no hyphen, as I don’t see a possibility of misreading, but you could perhaps convince me otherwise.)

8. Usually, if the dictionary lists a hyphenated adjective, its noun form (-ness, -er) will also be hyphenated.

open-ended (adj.); open-endedness (n.)
first-string (adj.); first-stringer (n.)

For the following tables,

vt.= transitive verb (requires a direct object)
vi.=intransitive verb (does not require a direct object)
v.=can be transitive or intransitive: I will walk. I will walk the dog. I read. I read a book.

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after

Usually afterword

AP: No hyphen to form a noun, but use a hyphen to form an adjective or adverb. CMS would agree.

black=dictionaries agree. blue, pink: dictionaries disagree. gray=not listed here, but agrees by default rule. lt. blue, lt. pink: not listed here, but disagrees by default rule.

All words listed in dictionary:

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)
WNW (AP’s dictionary)
Usually
afterword
as a noun, but after-word as an adjective
If not in MW11 dictionary, hyphenate if used as adjective before noun, but two words elsewhere. He had a snack after school, but after-school snack.
Usually
afterword as a noun, but after-word as an adjective
If not in dictionary, afterword to form a noun, but after-word to form an adjective, and two words otherwise. the afterlife, but an after-life plan, what happens after life?
1 word / 2 words / Hyphenated / Dictionaries agree / Disagrees w WNW 1 word / 2 words / Hyphenated / Dictionaries agree / Disagrees w MW11
afterbirth afterbirth
afterburner afterburner
aftercare aftercare
afterclap afterclap
afterdamp
afterdeck afterdeck
aftereffect aftereffect
afterglow afterglow
afterguard
after-hours after-hours
afterimage afterimage
afterlife afterlife
aftermarket aftermarket
aftermath aftermath
aftermost aftermost
afternoon afternoon
afterpains
after-party after-party (not in WNW but AP lists it.)
afterpiece afterpiece
aftershave after-shave
aftershock aftershock
aftertaste aftertaste
after-tax after-tax
afterthought afterthought
aftertime aftertime
afterward afterward
afterword afterword
afterworld

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away

verbs: two words.

The bird will fly away. Please get away from me. Don’t give away that book.

adjectives and nouns: if they are in the dictionary, they are one word.

I have flyaway hair. I need a weekend getaway. The book was a free giveaway for customers.

Most of the two-word verbs are not listed in the dictionary. If not listed in the dictionary, they either appear here in gray or are not included on this list.

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)   WNW (AP’s dictionary)  
back away vi. back away vi.
blow away vt. blow away vt.
break away vi. break away vi.
breakaway n., adj. breakaway n., adj.
caraway n. caraway n.
carry away vt. carry away vt.
castaway n., adj. castaway n., adj.
cutaway n., adj. cutaway n., adj.
fadeaway (sports) n. fadeaway (sports) n.
fall away vi. fall away vi.
fallaway n., adj. fallaway n., adj.
faraway
(a faraway place)
adj. faraway
(a faraway place)
adj.
far away
(traveling far away,
he is far away)
adv. far away
(traveling far away,
he is far away)
adv.
 flyaway  adj. flyaway adj.
 foldaway  adj. foldaway adj.
 getaway n. getaway n.
 give away vt. give away vt.
 giveaway  n. giveaway n.
 hideaway n. hideaway n.
 lay away vt. lay away vt.
 layaway  n. layaway n.
 pull away vi. pull away vi.
 rockaway  n.  rockaway n.
 –    rollaway adj.
 run away vi. run away vi.
 runaway n., adj. runaway  n., adj.
 sleepaway adj.  
 stow away vi. stow away vi.
 stowaway n. stowaway n.
 straightaway adv., adj.,
n.
straightaway  adv., adj.,
n.
 takeaway
(key message, sports term)
n., adj.  –  
 takeaway
(British term for takeout food)
n., adj. take-away or takeaway
(British term for takeout food)
n., adj.
 tear away vt. tear away vt.
 –   tearaway adj.
 tearaway (British)  n. tearaway (British) n.
 thataway adv. thataway adv., n.
 throw away vt. throw away vt.
 throwaway  n., adj. throwaway n., adj.
 turn away vt., vi. turn away  vt., vi.
 walk away vi. walk away vi.
 walkaway n. walkaway n.

book-

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) WNW (AP’s dictionary)
bookbindery  bookbindery
bookbinding  bookbinding
bookcase  bookcase
book club  book club
bookend  bookend
bookkeeping  bookkeeping
 book learning
book lice  book lice
book lungs  book lungs
bookmaker  bookmaker
bookman  bookman
bookmark  bookmark
book-match (matching grains to achieve a mirror image)  –
 book matches (matches in a cardboard folder)
bookmobile  bookmobile
bookplate  bookplate
 bookrack
 bookrest
 book review
 book scorpion
bookseller  bookseller
bookshelf  bookshelf
bookshop  bookshop
bookstall  bookstall
 bookstand
bookstore  bookstore
 book tour
book value  book value
bookworm  bookworm

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-book

If not in dictionary, make it two words. But hyphenate if using as an adjective before a noun.

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) WNW (AP’s dictionary)
If not in dictionary, make it two words: activity book
But hyphenate if using it as an adjective before a noun: activity-book fun.
If not in dictionary, make it two words.
account book account book
audiobook audiobook
bankbook bankbook
black book black book
blue book blue book
casebook casebook
chapbook chapbook
chapter book
chapter book
checkbook checkbook
class book
class book
codebook code book
coffee-table book coffee-table book
coloring book coloring book
comic book comic book
commonplace book commonplace book
cookbook cookbook
copybook copybook
date book datebook
daybook daybook
Domesday Book Domesday Book
dream book dreambook
e-book e-book
field book field book
flip book flipbook (also flip book)
fly book
fly book
funny book
funny book
good book or Good Book
Good Book
grade book grade book
guest book guest book
guidebook guidebook
handbook handbook
hymnbook hymnbook
law book lawbook
logbook logbook
matchbook matchbook
netbook netbook
nonbook nonbook
notebook notebook
overbook overbook
passbook passbook
 phone book
phone book
 picture book (n.) picture book (n.)
 picture-book (adj.) picture-book (adj.)
 playbook playbook
pocket book (a small book)
pocketbook pocketbook (a billfold or purse)
prayer book
prayer book
record book record book
rule book
rule book
schoolbook schoolbook
score book score book
scrapbook scrapbook
sketchbook sketchbook
songbook songbook
sourcebook sourcebook
statute book
statute book
storybook storybook
stylebook stylebook
talking book talking book
telephone book
telephone book
 textbook textbook
 trade book
trade book
 white book
white book
 workbook workbook
 yearbook yearbook

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class

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)   WNW (AP’s dictionary)  
 class act n.  –  
 class action n.  class action n.
 –  class book n.
 class-conscious adj.  class-conscious adj.
 class consciousness n.  class consciousness n.
 class interval n.  –  
 classmate n.  classmate n.
 classroom n.  classroom n.
 –    class struggle n.
 airman first class n.  airman first class n.
 cabin class n.  cabin class n.
 –    chattering classes n.
 –    distribution class n.
 first class (sit in first class)
(and second class, etc.)
n.  first class (sit in first class)
(and second class, etc.)
n.
  first-class (first-class treatment,
traveling first-class)

(and second-class, etc.)
 adj., adv.  first-class (first-class treatment,
traveling first-class)

(and second-class, etc.)
adj., adv.
 form class n.  form class n.
 high-class adj.  high-class adj.
 –    low-class (informal) adj.
 lower class (the lower class) n.  lower class (the lower class) n.
 lower-class (lower-class neighborhoods) adj.  lower-class (lower-class neighborhoods) adj.
 –  lowerclassman n.
 master class n.  master class n.
 middle class (the middle class) n.  middle class n.
 middle-class (middle-class families)    middle-class adj.
 middle-classness n.  –  
 private first class n.  private first class n.
 sergeant first class n.  sergeant first class n.
 tourist class n.  tourist class n.
 underclassman n.  underclassman n.
 upper class (the upper class) n.  upper class (the upper class) n.
 upper-class (upper-class citizens) adj.  upper-class (upper-class citizens) adj.
 upperclassman n.  upperclassman n.
 working class (the working class)    working class (the working class) n.
 working-class (working-class citizens)    working-class (working-class citizens) adj.
 world-class adj.  world-class adj.

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cross

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) WNW (AP’s dictionary)
cross action  –
crossbanding  –
crossbar  crossbar
crossbeam  crossbeam
crossbearer  –
 –  crossbedded
crossbill  crossbill
crossbones  crossbones
crossbow  crossbow
crossbreed  crossbreed
cross-check  cross-check
cross-claim  –
cross-country  cross-country
crosscourt  crosscourt
 cross cousin
cross-cultural  cross-cultural
crosscurrent  crosscurrent
crosscut  crosscut
cross-dressing  cross-dressing
cross-examination  cross-examination
cross-eyed  cross-eyed
 –  cross-fade
cross-fertile  cross-fertile
cross-fertilize  cross-fertilize
cross-file  cross-file
cross fire  crossfire
cross-grained  cross-grained
crosshair  crosshair
crosshatch  crosshatch
cross-hatching  not listed, so crosshatching, based on crosshatch
crosshead  crosshead
cross-index  cross-index
crossing guard  crossing guard
crossing-over (scientific)  crossing-over (scientific)
cross-legged  cross-legged
crosslet  crosslet
crosslinguistic  –
cross-link  cross-link
cross multiply  –
cross-national  –
crossover (n.) but cross over (v.)
a crossover vehicle, plan a crossover, BUT to cross over to the country music genre
 crossover (n.) but cross over (v.)
a crossover vehicle, plan a crossover, BUT to cross over to the country music genre
cross-ownership  cross-ownership
crosspatch  crosspatch
crosspiece  crosspiece
cross-pollinate  cross-pollinate
cross product  –
cross-purpose  cross-purpose
cross-question  cross-question
cross-react  –
cross-refer  cross-refer
cross-reference  cross-reference
 –  cross relation
cross-resistance  –
 –  cross-rhythm
crossroad  crossroad
crossruff  crossruff
cross section (n.), but cross-section (v.), cross-sectional (adj.)  cross section (n.), but cross-section (v.), cross-sectional (adj.)
cross-staff  –
cross-stitch  cross-stitch
cross talk  cross-talk
cross-tolerance  –
crosstown  crosstown
cross-trade  –
cross-train  cross-train
crosstrees  crosstrees
cross vault  –
crosswalk  crosswalk
crossway  crossway
crosswind  crosswind
crosswise  crosswise
crossword  crossword
 double cross (noun form and genetics)
 double cross (noun form and genetics)
 double-cross (v. – to betray)
 double-cross (v. – to betray)

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cyber

orange=additional terms listed in AP Stylebook 2017.

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) WNW (AP’s dictionary)
one word / – indicates not listed  one word / two words / not listed in WNW but AP lists it /
– indicates not listed
 cyberattack
cyberbully
 cyberbully
cybercafe  cybercafe
cybercitizen  –
 cyberespionage
 cyber insurance
 Cyber Monday
cybernate  cybernate
cybernation  cybernation
cybernaut  cybernaut
cybernetics  cybernetics
cyberporn  –
cyberpunk  cyberpunk
cybersecurity  –
cybersex  cybersex
 cyber shopping
cyberspace  cyberspace
cyberspeak  –
cybersurfer  –
cyberterrorism  –
 cyberwar

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double

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)   WNW (AP’s dictionary)  
double-A battery (= AA battery)  n.  –  
double agent  n.  double agent  n.
double bar  n.  double bar  n.
double-barrel  n.  –  
double-barreled adj. double-barreled adj.
double bass  n.  double bass  n.
double bassist  n.  double bassist n.
double bassoon  n.  double bassoon  n.
double bill  n.  –  
double bind  n.  double bind  n.
 double Blackwall hitch (knot) n.
double-blind  adj.  double-blind  adj.
double bogey n.  double bogey n.
double-bogey vt.  –  
double boiler  n.  double boiler  n.
 double bond  n.  double bond  n.
 double-breasted  adj.  double-breasted adj.
 double check (a double check)  n.  double-check
(a double-check)
n.
 double-check (to double-check) v.  double-check (to double-check) v.
 – double chin n.
 double-clutch  vi.  –  
 –  double counterpoint n.
 double-crop v.  –  
 double cross (a double cross) n.  double cross (a double cross) n.
 double-cross (to double-cross) vt.  double-cross (to double-cross)  vt.
 double-crosser n.  double-crosser n.
 double dagger n.  double dagger  n.
 double date (a double date) n.  double date (a double date) n.
 double-date (to double-date) v.  double-date (to double-date) v.
 double-dealing n., adj.  double-dealing n.
 double-dealer n.  double-dealer n.
 double-deck (or double-decked) adj  –  
 double-decker n.  double-decker n.
 –  double decomposition n.
 double-digit    double-digit  adj.
 double-dipper  n.  double dipper n.
 double-dipping  n.  double dipping  n.
 double-dome  n.  –  
 double door  n.  –  
 double-double  n.  –  
 double down  vi.  –  
 double dribble n.  double dribble  n.
 double Dutch n.  double Dutch (also double dutch or Double Dutch)  n.
 double eagle n.  double eagle n.
 double-eagle vt.  –  
 double-edged adj.  double-edged adj.
 double-edged sword  n.  double-edged sword n.
 double-ended adj.  –  
 double-ender n.  –  
 double entendre n.  double-entendre n.
 double entry    double entry  n.
 –  double-entry adj.
 –  double exposure n.
 double-faced (or less commonly double-face) adj.  double-faced adj.
 double fault n.  double fault  n.
 double-fault vi.  double-fault vi.
 double feature  n.  double feature n.
 double fertilization  n.  –  
 –  double flat n.
 double genitive  n.  –  
 double glazing  n.  double-glazing n.
 Double Gloucester (cheese) n.  –  
 doublehanded  adj.  –  
 doubleheader  n.  double-header n.
 double-helical  adj.  –  
 double helix  n.  double helix n.
 double-hung adj.  double-hung adj., n.
 double hyphen  n.  –  
 double indemnity  n.  double indemnity n.
 double jeopardy  n.  double jeopardy n.
 double-jointed adj.  double-jointed adj.
 double knit  n.  double-knit adj.
 –  double-minded adj.
 –  double mordent n.
 double negative    double negative n.
 double-park  v.  double-park v.
 double play  n.  double play n.
 double pneumonia  n.  double pneumonia n.
 double prime  n.  –  
 double-quick  n., adj., adv.  double-quick n., adj., adv., v.
 double reed  n.  double-reed n., adj.
 double refraction  n.  double refraction n.
 double-ring  adj.  –  
 double salt  n.  double salt  n.
 –  double sharp n.
 double-space  v.  double-space v.
 double-spaced  adj., adv.  double-spaced adj., adv.
 double-spacing  n.  double-spacing n.
 doublespeak n.  doublespeak n.
 doublespeaker n.  –  
 double standard    double standard n.
 double star    double star n.
 double-stop  v., n.  double-stop v., n.
 double sugar  n.  –  
 –  double tackle n.
double take n.  double take n.
double-talk n., vi.  double talk n.
double-talker n.  –  
double-team vt., n.  double-team vt.
Double Ten n.  –  
doublethink n.  double-think or doublethink n.
double time n.  double time n.
double-time vi.  –  
double-tongue vi.  double-tongue vi.
 doubletree n.
double up vi.  –
double vision n.  double vision n.
double whammy n.  –  
double-wide n.  double-wide (sometimes written doublewide) n.
daily double n. daily double n.

ever

CMS: Hyphenate before a noun, but make two words after a noun.

an ever-reliable friend
My friend is ever reliable.

AP does not offer specific rules on this topic, but a look at their Ask the Editor shows they generally agree with CMS.

Some permanent constructions are one word (a.k.a. closed compounds). Here are all the closed ever- compounds listed in each dictionary:

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) WNW (AP’s dictionary)
everblooming adj.
everduring adj.
everglade(s) n. everglade(s) n.
Everglades
(geographical name)
n. Everglades
(geographical name)
n.
evergreen adj., n. evergreen adj., n.
everlasting adj., n. everlasting adj., n.
everlastingly adv. everlastingly adv.
everlastingness n. everlastingness n.
evermore adv. evermore adv.

first

Usually nouns are two words (sometimes one), but adjectives before a noun are hyphenated.

If it’s not listed, it doesn’t mean it’s not acceptable, it just means the dictionary doesn’t feel the need to list it as its own entry, e.g. first edition, first finger.

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)  WNW (AP’s dictionary) 
       
first aid  n.  first aid  n.
first base  n.  first base  n.
first baseman  n.  first baseman  n.
firstborn  n., adj.  firstborn  n., adj.
first cause  n.  first cause  n.
first class (sitting in first class)  n.  first class (sitting in first class) n.
first-class (first-class accommodations, to travel first-class) adj., adv.  first-class (first-class accommodations, to travel first-class) adj., adv.
first cousin  n.  first cousin  n.
first-degree burn  compound adj. + n.  first-degree burn  compound adj. + n.
first down  n.  first down  n.
first edition  n.  –  
first estate  n.  first estate  n.
 –    first family  n.
 –    first finger  n.
first floor  n.  first floor  n.
firstfruits  n.  first fruits  n.
 –    first-generation adj.
firsthand  adj., adv.  firsthand  adj., adv.
first lady (often First Lady)  n.  first lady (often First Lady)  n.
first lieutenant  n.  first lieutenant  n.
 –    first light  n.
first-line  adj.  –  
firstling  n.  firstling  n.
firstly  adv.  firstly  adv.
   first mate  n.
first mortgage  n.  first mortgage  n.
first name  n.  first name  n.
first night *
 n.  first night *
 n.
first-nighter *
 n.  first-nighter *
 n.
first off  adv.  –  –
first offender  n.  first offender  n.
first papers  n.  –  n.
first person  n.  first person  n.
 –    first quarter  n.
first-rate  adj., adv.  first-rate  adj., adv.
first-rateness  n.  –
first-rater  n.  –
first reading  n.  –  
first responder  n.  first responder  n.
first-run  adj.  first-run  adj.
first sergeant  n.  first sergeant  n.
first strike  n.  first strike n.
first-strike  adj.  first-strike adj.
first-string  adj.  first-string adj.
first-stringer  n.  –  
first water  n.  first water n.
first world (often First World)  n.  First World (occasionally first world) n.

*Note, first night but first-nighter.

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half-

CMS: Check MW11. If not listed there, leave nouns as two words, but hyphenate adjectives both before and after the noun. I am half-awake. AND The half-awake residents took shelter. BUT I wore a half shirt. I’m only a half success.

AP: hyphenate if not listed in WNW. (Except terms that should be two words.)

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)
WNW (AP’s dictionary)
Can be
halfword, half-word, or half word
, depending.
Can be
halfword, half-word, or half word
, depending.
1 word / 2 words / Hyphenated / Dictionaries agree / Disagrees w WNW / – indicates not listed
1 word / 2 words / Hyphenated / Dictionaries agree / Disagrees w MW11 / – indicates not listed.
 half-and-half half-and-half
 half-assed half-assed
 halfback halfback
 half-baked half-baked
 half bath
 halfbeak halfbeak
 half binding half binding
 half blood (n.) or half-blood (adj.) half blood or half-blood (n.); half-blood (adj.).
AP prefers half-blood only.
 half boot half boot
 half-bound
 half-bred
 half-breed half-breed
 half brother half brother
 half-caste half-caste
 – half-cell
 half cock half cock
 half-cocked half-cocked
 half crown half crown
Not listed in WNW, but AP prefers half day (n.), half-day (adj.)
 half dime
 half-dollar half dollar
 half duplex
 half eagle half eagle
 half-glasses  –
 – half-evergreen
 – half gainer
 half-hard  –
 halfhearted halfhearted
 half hitch half hitch
 half hour half-hour
 half-hourly
 half-knot
 half-length half-length
 half-life half-life
 half-light half-light
 half line
 half-mast half-mast *
 half-moon half-moon
half mourning
 half nelson half nelson
 half note half note
 halfpence
 halfpenny halfpenny
 half-pint half pint
 half-pipe
 half plane
 half rest
 – half rhyme
 half shell half shell
 half sister half sister
 – half size
 half-slip half slip
 half sole (n.) but half-sole (v.) half sole (n.) but half-sole (v.)
 half sovereign half sovereign
 half-space
 half-staff half-staff *
 half step half step
 half-timbered half-timbered
 halftime (sports intermission)
halftime (sports intermission)
 half-time (half the typical hours)
 half title half title
 halftone halftone
 half-track halftrack
 half-truth half-truth
 half volley (n.) but half-volley (v.) half volley (n.) but half-volley (v.)
 halfway halfway
 halfway house  halfway house
 half-wit  half-wit
 half-world
 time and a half  time and a half

*AP note: Flags are flown at half-mast on ships and at naval stations. Anywhere else on land, they are flown at half-staff.

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high

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) WNW (AP’s dictionary)
high altar n.  
high analysis adj.  
high and dry adj.  
high and low adv.  
high-and-mighty adj.  
highball n., vi. highball n., vi.
high beam n. high beam n.
highbinder n. highbinder n.
high blood pressure n. high blood pressure n.
highborn adj. highborn adj.
highboy n. highboy n.
highbred adj. highbred adj.
highbrow n., adj. highbrow n., adj.
highbrowed adj.  
highbrowism n.  
highbush (plant) adj. high-bush (plant) adj.
high chair n. highchair n.
  High Church n.
High Church adj. High-Church adj.
High Churchman n. High-Churchman n.
high-class adj. high-class adj.
high comedy n. high comedy n.
high command n.  
high commissioner n. high commissioner n.
  high-compression adj.
high-concept adj. high-concept adj.
high-count adj.  
high court n.  
  high day n.
high-def (or less commonly hi-def) adj., n. high-def (informal) adj., n.
high-definition adj. high-definition adj., n.
high-density lipoprotein n. high-density lipoprotein n.
high-end adj. high-end adj.
high-energy adj. high-energy adj.
higher critic n.  
higher criticism n. higher criticism n.
higher education n. higher education n.
higher law n.  
higher learning n.  
higher-up n. higher-up n.
high explosive n. high explosive n.
highfalutin adj. highfalutin (also sp. highfaluting) adj.
high fashion n.  
high fidelity n. high fidelity n.
high-fidelity adj.  
high five n. high-five n.
high-five v. high-five v.
highflier (or highflyer) n. highflier (also sp. highflyer)  
high-flown adj. high-flown adj.
high-flying adj. highflying adj.
high frequency n. high frequency n.
high gear n.  
High German n. High German n.
high-grade adj. high-grade adj.
high ground n. high ground n.
high-handed adj. highhanded adj.
high-handedly adv. highhandedly adv.
high-handedness n. highhandedness n.
high hat (or hi-hat) n. high-hat n.
high-hat adj., vt. high-hat adj., vt.
high heels n.  –  
High Holidays n. High Holidays (also High Holy Days) n.
high horse n.    
  high-impact adj.
hijack (or less commonly highjack) vt., n. hijack (or alt. sp. highjack) vt.
high jinks (or less commonly hijinks) n. high jinks
(or alt. sp. hijinks or hi-jinks)
n.
high jump n. high jump n.
high-jump vt.  
high jumper n.  
highland, highlands n., adj. highland, highlands n., adj.
Highlands (geographical name) n. Highlands (geographical name) n.
highlander n. highlander n.
Highland fling n. Highland fling n.
high-level adj. high-level adj.
highlife n. high life (also written highlife) n.
highlight n., vt. highlight n., vt.
highlighter n. highlighter n.
  high liver n.
high-low-jack n.    
high mass (often written High Mass) n. High Mass n.
high-minded adj. high-minded adj.
high-mindedly adv. high-mindedly adv.
high-mindedness n. high-mindedness n.
high-muck-a-muck
(or high-muckety-muck)
n. high muck-a-muck
(or high muckety-muck)
n.
highness n. highness n.
high noon n. high noon n.
high-octane adj. high-octane adj.
high-pitched adj. high-pitched adj.
high place n. high place n.
High Plains (geographical name) n.  
high polymer n.  
high-powered (or less commonly high-power) adj. high-powered adj.
high-pressure adj., vt. high-pressure adj., vt.
  high-priced adj.
high priest / high priestess n. high priest / high priestess n.
high priesthood n. high priesthood n.
    high-profile adj.
high relief n. high relief n.
high-rise n., adj. high-rise n., adj.
high road n. high road (also written highroad) n.
high roller n. high roller n.
high-rolling adj. high-rolling adj.
high school n. high school n.
  high-school adj.
high schooler n. high schooler or high-schooler n.
high seas n. high seas n.
High Sierra (geographical name) n.  
high sign n. high sign n.
 –   high society n.
high-sounding adj. high-sounding adj.
high-speed adj.  
high-spirited adj. high-spirited adj.
high-spiritedly adv.  –  
high-spiritedness n.  –  
highspot n.  –  
    high-stepping adj.
high-sticking n. high-sticking (also written high sticking) n.
high street n.  
high-strung adj. high-strung adj.
high style n.
high-style adj.
high table  n. high table  n.
hightail  vi. high-tail or hightail vi.
high tea n. high tea n.
high tech n. high tech (also high-tech) n., adj.
high-tech (or less commonly hi-tech) adj. high-tech adj.
high technology n. high technology n.
high-tension adj. high-tension adj.
high-test adj. high-test adj.
high-ticket adj.    
high tide n. high tide n.
  high time n.
high-toned adj. high-toned adj.
high-top adj. high-top (also written hightop) adj.
high-tops n. high-tops n.
high treason  n. high treason  n.
high-voltage  adj.    
high water n. high water n.
high-water adj. high-water adj.
high-water mark n. high-water mark n.
highway n. highway n.
highwayman n. highwayman n.
  highway patrol n.
highway robbery n. highway robbery n.
  high wire n.
high-wire adj.  
high-wrought adj.  
  ace-high adj.
junior high school n. junior high school n.
senior high school n. senior high school n.
  waist-high adj.

home

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) WNW (AP’s dictionary)
at home (an at home)
n. at-home (an at-home)
n.
at-home (at-home recreation)
adj.  
close to home    
down-home adj. down-home adj.
funeral home n. funeral home n.
group home n. group home n.
in-home adj.  
mobile home n. mobile home n.
motor home n. motor home n.
nonhome adj.  
nursing home n. nursing home n.
stay-at-home adj., n.  
take-home pay n. take-home pay n.
townhome (but town house)
n.  

-house

word house or wordhouse. Check dictionary. Exception: in-house (adj.)
Two words if not listed per CMS. (AP does not mention but would surely agree.)

Here are a few examples.

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)
WNW (AP’s dictionary)
alehouse alehouse
almshouse almshouse
art house art house
backhouse backhouse
barrelhouse barrelhouse
bathhouse bathhouse
bawdy house bawdyhouse
beadhouse
birdhouse birdhouse
blockhouse blockhouse
boardinghouse boardinghouse
boathouse boathouse
bunkhouse bunkhouse
carriage house
clearinghouse clearinghouse
clubhouse clubhouse
coffeehouse coffeehouse
country house
courthouse courthouse
deckhouse deckhouse
discount house discount house
doghouse doghouse
dollhouse dollhouse
engine house
farmhouse farmhouse
field house field house
firehouse firehouse
flophouse flophouse
freight house
fun house fun house
gashouse gashouse
gatehouse gatehouse
glasshouse glasshouse
greenhouse greenhouse
guardhouse guardhouse
guesthouse guesthouse
halfway house halfway house
hash house hash house
henhouse henhouse
hothouse hothouse
icehouse icehouse
in-house in-house
jailhouse jailhouse
lighthouse lighthouse
lodging house lodging house
longhouse longhouse
madhouse madhouse
manor house manor house
meetinghouse meetinghouse
motherhouse motherhouse
movie house movie house
nuthouse nuthouse
open house open house
opera house opera house
outhouse outhouse
packinghouse packinghouse
penthouse penthouse
pesthouse pesthouse
playhouse playhouse
poorhouse poorhouse
porterhouse porterhouse
pothouse pothouse
powerhouse powerhouse
public house public house
roughhouse roughhouse
row house row house
safe house safe house
smokehouse smokehouse
storehouse storehouse
roadhouse roadhouse
rooming house rooming house
roundhouse roundhouse
schoolhouse schoolhouse
slaughterhouse slaughterhouse
statehouse statehouse
station house station house
steak house steakhouse
summerhouse summer house
taphouse
teahouse teahouse
tollhouse tollhouse
townhome
town house town house
tree house treehouse
warehouse warehouse
wheelhouse wheelhouse
whorehouse whorehouse
workhouse workhouse

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like-

CMS: No thoughts on this topic, but would surely agree would AP’s rule.
The only hyphenated like- word in MW11 is like-minded.

AP: Use a hyphen when like means “similar to.” like-minded, like-natured
But no hyphen for words with their own meanings: likewise, likeness

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-like

CMS: One word if listed in MW11. If not listed, hyphenate whether before or after a noun.

businesslike, catlike, childlike, godlike, leaflike, weblike (all in MW11)
BUT statue-like, cell-like (not in MW11)

AP: Do not use a hyphen usually, regardless of dictionary. catlike, statuelike
But use a hyphen to avoid a triple l: cell-like
And use a hyphen with a proper noun: Lyme-like
One exception in AP: flu-like

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low

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) . WNW (AP’s dictionary) .
lowball vt., n. lowball vt., adj.
  lowballing n.
low beam n. low beam n.
low blood pressure n. low blood pressure n.
low blow n. low blow n.
lowborn adj. lowborn adj.
lowboy n. lowboy n.
lowbred adj. lowbred adj.
lowbrow adj., n. lowbrow adj., n.
  low-cal (informal) adj.
  Low Church n.
Low Church adj. Low-Church adj.
Low Churchman n.  
  low-class (informal) adj.
low comedy n. low comedy n.
 –   low-cost adj.
Low Countries (in Europe, geographical name) n. Low Countries (in Europe, geographical name) n.
low country (often written Low Country) n.  
low-country (often written Low-Country) adj.  
Low Country (or Lowcountry) (in U.S., geographical name) n.
  low-cut adj.
low-density lipoprotein n. low-density lipoprotein n.
low-down adj. lowdown adj.
lowdown n. lowdown n.
low earth orbit n.  
low-end adj. low-end adj.
  lower bound n.
  Lower California n.
Lower Canada n. Lower Canada n.
lowercase *
(in lowercase, lowercase letters, please lowercase this.)
n., adj., vt. lowercase *
(in lowercase, lowercase letters, please lowercase this.)
n., adj., vt.
lower class (the lower class) n. lower class (the lower class) n.
lower-class (lower-class homes) adj. lower-class (lower-class homes) adj.
  lowerclassman n.
lower criticism n. lower criticism n.
Lower 48 (or lower 48) n. lower forty-eight (“usually written lower 48”) n.
lower fungus n.  –  
  lower house (often Lower House) n.
lowermost adj. lowermost adj.
Lower Peninsula (of Michigan) n.  
  lower world n.
lowest common denominator n. lowest common denominator n.
lowest common multiple n. lowest common multiple n.
lowest terms n.  
low frequency n. low frequency n.
Low German n. Low German n.
low-grade adj. low-grade adj.
low-key (or less commonly low-keyed) adj. low-key (also low-keyed) adj.
lowland n., adj. lowland n., adj.
lowlander n. lowlander n.
Lowlands (of Scotland) n. Lowlands (of Scotland) n.
Low Latin n. Low Latin n.
low-level adj. low-level adj.
lowlife n. lowlife n.
low-life adj. lowlife adj.
  lowlifer n.
lowlifes (also lowlives) n. lowlifes n.
lowlight n. lowlight n.
low-lying adj. low-lying adj.
low mass (often written Low Mass) n. Low Mass n.
low-minded adj. low-minded adj.
low-mindedly adv. low-mindedly adv.
low-mindedness n. low-mindedness n.
  low-necked (also low-neck) adj.
low-pressure adj. low-pressure adj.
  low-priced adj.
  low-profile adj.
  low-proof adj.
low relief n. low relief n.
low-rent adj. low-rent adj.
lowrider n. lowrider n.
low-rise adj. low-rise adj.
low-slung adj.  –  
low-spirited adj. low-spirited adj.
low-spiritedly adv.  
low-spiritedness n.  
Low Sunday n. Low Sunday n.
low-tech adj. low-tech adj.
  low-technology adj.
  low-tension adj.
low-test adj.
low tide n. low tide n.
low water n. low water n.
  low-water mark n.

*MW11 also has an entry for “lower case,” noun, but does not specify the difference between one word or two. Chicago Manual of Style Online only uses the one-word version, “lowercase,” whether noun or adjective.

middle

 MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)    WNW (AP’s dictionary)  
 middle age  n.  middle age  n.
 middle-aged  adj.  middle-aged adj.
 middle-ager  n.  –  
 Middle Ages  n.  Middle Ages n.
 Middle America  n.  Middle America n.
 middle-American  adj.  Middle American adj.
 Middle American  n.  Middle American n.
 –    Middle Atlantic States n.
 –    middlebreaker n.
 middlebrow  n., adj.  middlebrow n., adj.
 middle C  n.  middle C n.
 middle class (the middle class)  n.  middle class (the middle class)
n.
 middle-class (middle-class families)  adj.  middle-class (middle-class families)
adj.
 middle-classness  n.  –  
 middle distance  n.  middle distance n.
 –    middle-distance adj.
 Middle Dutch  n.  –  
 middle ear  n.  middle ear n.
 Middle East  n.  Middle East n.
 Middle Eastern  adj.  Middle Eastern adj.
 Middle Easterner  n.  Middle Easterner n.
 Middle English  n.  Middle English n.
 middle finger  n.  –  
 Middle French n.  Middle French n.
 middle game n.  –  
 Middle Greek n.  Middle Greek n.
 middle ground n.  middle ground n.
 –    middle guard n.
 Middle High German n.  Middle High German n.
 Middle Irish n.  Middle Irish n.
 –    Middle Kingdom n.
 middle lamella n.  middle lamella n.
 –    Middle Latin n.
 Middle Low German n.  Middle Low German n.
 middleman  n.  middleman n.
 middle management  n.  middle management n.
 middle manager  n.  middle manager n.
 –    middlemost adj.
 middle name  n.  middle name n.
 middle of the road  n.  –  
 middle-of-the-road adj.  middle-of-the-road adj.
 middle-of-the-roader n.  –  
 middle-of-the-roadism n.  –  
 Middle Passage n.  middle passage  n.
 Middle Persian n.  –  
 middle school  n.  middle school n.
 middle schooler  n.  middle schooler (or middle-schooler) n.
 Middle Scots n.  –  
 –    middle-sized adj.
 –    Middle States n.
 –    Middle Stone Age  n.
 middle term  n.  middle term  n.
 middleweight  n.  middleweight n.
 Middle Welsh  n.  –  

one

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)   WNW (AP’s dictionary)  
one another pr.  one another pr.
one-armed bandit (or less commonly one-arm bandit) n. one-armed bandit  
one-bagger n. one-bagger  n.
  one-base hit  n.
one-dimensional adj. one-dimensional  adj.
one-dimensionality n.  –  
 –   one-eighty (also written 180)  n.
onefold adj.  –  
one-handed adj.  –  
one-horned rhinoceros n.  –  
one-horse adj.  one-horse adj.
one-liner n.  one-liner n.
one-man adj.  one-man adj.
one-nighter n.  one-nighter n.
one-night stand n.  one-night stand  n.
one-note adj.  one-note adj.
one-off adj., n.  one-off adj., n.
one-on-one adj., adv.  one-on-one adj., adv., n.
one-piece adj., n.  one-piece adj.
one-piecer n.  –  
oneself pr.  oneself pr.
one-shot adj., n.  one-shot adj.
one-sided adj.  one-sided adj.
one-sidedly adv.  –  
one-sidedness n.  –  
one-step n., vi.  one-step n., vi.
one-stop adj.  one-stop adj.
one-tailed (or less commonly, one-tail) adj.  –  
onetime (former, formerly, one-shot) adj., adv.  one-time (also onetime) (former, one-shot) adj.
one-time, one-timed, one-timing, one-timer (n.) (a shot in hockey, soccer, etc.) vt.  –  
one-to-one adj.  one-to-one  adj.
one-track adj.  one-track adj.
one-trick pony n.  one-trick pony n.
one-two (boxing) n.  one-two (boxing) n.
one-two punch n.  one-two punch n.
one up (I’m one up on you.) adj.  one-up (I’m one-up on you) (also one up) adj.
one-up, one-upped, one-upping (I will one-up you.) vt.  one-up, one-upped, one-upping (I will one-up you.)  vt.
one-upmanship (or less commonly one-upsmanship) n.  one-upmanship  n.
one-way adj.  one-way adj.
 –    one-woman  adj.
 –    Air Force One  n.
 anyone (Is anyone there?)  pr.  anyone (Is anyone there?) pr.
 any one (Reading any one of these books will be helpful.)  n.  any one (Reading any one of these books will be helpful.)  n.
 A1 adj.  A one (also A 1, A-1)  adj.
 day one (often written Day One)
(the beginning or first day)
 n.  Day One (also day one)
(the beginning or first day)
n.
 everyone (Everyone is here.)    everyone (Everyone is here.) pr.
 every one (Every one of the students was present.)  n.  every one (Every one of the students was present.) n.
 no one (=nobody) (No one was there.) (Compare to: Not one person was there.)    no one (=nobody) (No one was there.) (Compare to: Not one person was there.) n.
 number one (number one on my list, we’re number one) n.  number one n.
 number one (the number one salesperson, rule number one) adj.  –  
 someone pr.  someone n.
 square one n.  square one n.
 twenty-one (blackjack) n.  twenty-one (blackjack) n.

open

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)   WNW (AP’s dictionary)  
open admission n.  open admissions  n.
open adoption n.  –  
open air n.  open air  n.
open-air adj.  open-air adj.
open-and-shut adj.  open-and-shut adj.
open arms n.  –  
open bar n.  open bar n.
opencast adj.  –  
open chain n.  open chain n.
   open circuit n.
   open-circuit adj.
open city n.  open city  n.
open dating n.  –  
open door n.  open door  n.
open-door adj.  open-door adj.
open-end adj.  open-end adj.
open-ended adj.  open-ended adj.
open-endedness n.  open-endedness n.
open enrollment n.  –  
open-eyed adj.  open-eyed adj.
open-faced (less commonly open-face) adj.  open-faced (also open-face) adj.
openhanded (and ly, ness) adj.  openhanded (and ly, ness)
adj.
open-heart (as in surgery) adj. open-heart (as in surgery) adj.
openhearted (and ly, ness) adj. openhearted (and ly, ness) adj.
open-hearth adj.  open-hearth adj.
open house n.  open house n.
open-label adj.  –  
open letter n.  open letter n.
open loop n.  –  
  open market n.
open marriage n.  –  
open mike n.  –  
open-minded (and ly, ness) adj. open-minded (and ly, ness) adj.
openmouthed (and ly, ness) adj. open-mouthed  adj.
open-pollinated adj.  
  open-pollination n.
  open primary n.
  open punctuation n.
  open sea n.
open season n,.  
open secret n. open secret n.
open sentence n.  
open sesame n. open sesame n.
open shop n. open shop n.
open sight n.  
  open-source adj.
open stance n.  
  open stock n.
open syllable n.  
open up v.  
openwork n. openwork n.
open-worked adj.  

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quasi

Some words are hyphenated and some aren’t. Here is the full list of quasi- words found in MW11 and WNW.

black=dictionaries agree. gray=not listed but agrees by default. dk. blue/dk. pink: dictionaries disagree. lt. blue/lt. pink: not listed but disagrees by default.

backgrounds: white=one word. blue=two words. yellow=hyphen.

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self

self-word

Examples: self-aware, self-conscious, self-control, self-help, self-identity, self-reliant, self-worth
MW11, WNW, CMS, and AP agree.

The only exceptions are not actually compound words: selfhood, selfless, selfness, selfsame, selfward.

One odd term:
MW11 prefers unself-conscious
but CMS disagrees and prefers unselfconscious
WNW prefers unselfconscious

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show

For types of television shows, always two words. (game show, reality show, talk show, etc.)

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) WNW (AP’s dictionary)
air show
art show
freak show freak show
game show game show
no-show no-show
peep show peep show
postshow
preshow
road show roadshow
sideshow sideshow
slide show
talent show talent show
talk show talk show
trade show

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style

tapas-style restaurant
we dined tapas-style
the food is tapas style

sentence-style capitalization
use sentence style

forms are usually hyphenated, but noun forms are usually open.

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two

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary) . WNW (AP’s dictionary) .
two’s complement n.  
two-bagger n. two-bagger (slang) n.
  two-base hit n.
two-bit adj. two-bit adj.
two bits n. two bits n.
two-by-four n., adj. two-by-four n., adj.
two cents n. two cents n.
two cents’ worth n. two cents’ worth n.
two-cycle adj. two-cycle  
two-dimensional adj. two-dimensional adj.
two-dimensionality n. two-dimensionality n.
  two-dimensionally adv.
two-edged adj. two-edged adj.
two-faced adj. two-faced adj.
  two-facedly adv.
two-facedness n.  
twofer n. twofer  n.
two-fisted adj. two-fisted  adj.
twofold adj., adv. twofold adj., adv.
two-footed adj.  
  two-four adj.
two-handed adj. two-handed  adj.
  two-hander  n.
  two-legged  adj.
two-party adj.  
twopence (or tuppence) n. twopence n.
twopenny adj. twopenny adj.
two-phase adj. two-phase adj.
two-piece adj., n. two-piece adj.
two-piecer n.  
two-ply adj. two-ply adj.
  two-pointer n.
  two-shot n.
two-sided adj. two-sided adj.
twosome n. twosome n., adj.
two-step n., vi. two-step n., vi.
  two-stroke adj.
two-suiter n. two-suiter n.
two-tailed (or less commonly two-tail) adj.  
two-time vt. two-time vt.
two-timer n. two-timer n.
two-tone adj. two-tone adj.
two-toned adj.  
two-way adj. two-way adj.
two-way street n. two-way street n.
two-wheeler n. two-wheeler n.
Goody Two-shoes
(often Goody Two-Shoes)
n. goody-two-shoes
(also goody two-shoes,
Goody Two-shoes,
Goody Two-Shoes)
n., adj.
goody-two-shoes adj.  
  number two n.
one-two n. one-two n.
one-two punch n. one-two punch n.
thirty-twomo n. thirty-twomo n.

upper

MW11 (CMS’s dictionary)   WNW (AP’s dictionary)  
upper bound n
Upper Canada n. Upper Canada n.
uppercase
(in uppercase, uppercase letters, please uppercase this.*)
adj., n., vt.  uppercase
(in uppercase, uppercase letters, please uppercase this.*)
 adj., n., vt.
upper class (the upper class) n.  upper class (the upper class) n.
upper-class (upper-class homes) adj.  upper-class (upper-class homes) adj.
upperclassman n.  upperclassman  n.
upper crust (the upper crust) n.  upper crust (the upper crust)  n.
upper-crust (upper-crust parties) adj.  upper-crust (upper-crust parties) adj.
uppercut n.  uppercut n.
upper hand n.  upper hand n.
 upper house (often Upper House) n.
uppermost adj., adv.
 uppermost  adj., adv.
upperpart n.  –  
Upper Peninsula (of Michigan) n.  Upper Peninsula (of Michigan) n.
upper respiratory adj.  –  
 fixer-upper n.  fixer-upper  n.

*MW11 also has an entry for “upper case,” noun, two words, but does not specify the difference between the one-word or two-word noun. Chicago Manual of Style Online only uses the one-word version, “uppercase,” whether noun or adjective. I did find two examples in their Q&A where they used the two-word noun, but there is no distinguishing factor for those, so they seem to favor the one-word noun.

vice

MW11, CMS, and WNW: vice word, vice-word, or viceword, depending on dictionary.

AP has its own simplified rule: two words always. vice word

Here are all listed vice words, including those mentioned by CMS and AP.

MW11 and CMS
If not listed, hyphenate per CMS rule.
WNW (AP’s dictionary)
AP differs from WNW! Two words always for consistency!
vice admiral vice admiral vice admiral
vice-chairman (not listed) vice-chairman vice chairman
vice-chancellor vice-chancellor vice chancellor
vice-consul vice-consul vice consul
vicegerent vicegerent vice regent
vice president vice president vice president
vice presidential duties
vice-principal because not listed vice principal
viceregal viceregal *
vice-regent viceregent vice regent
vicereine vicereine *
viceroy viceroy *
viceroyalty viceroyalty *
vice-secretary (not listed) vice secretary
vice squad vice squad vice squad
vice versa vice versa vice versa

*These aren’t technically compound words, i.e., roy would not stand on its own as a word, and viceroyalty, vicereine, and viceregal are all related to viceroy.

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miscellaneous

cold (there are more)

MW11 WNW
cold-blooded coldblooded
coldhearted coldhearted
warm-blooded warmblooded
warmed-over warmed-over
warm front warm front
warmhearted warmhearted
I will warm up. (v.) but Let’s do a warm-up. (n.) I will warm up. (v.) but Let’s do a warm-up. (n.)
 surefire adj. surefire (or sure-fire) adj.

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